This study centered on the enzymatic biotransformation of the major ginsenoside Rb1 into Rd for the mass production of minor ginsenosides using a novel recombinant -glucosidase from BL21(DE3) was characterized. categorized into the tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins, including protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol, and the pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins. The PPD-type ginsenosides are further classified by the position and number of sugar moieties attached by a glycosidic bond to the aglycon at positions C-3 and C-20 . After oral intake of ginseng, the major ginsenosides are PLX4032 supplier hydrolyzed through human intestinal digestion into the more active minor ginsenosides, which are easily absorbed. For instance, ginsenoside Rb1 is converted to ginsenosides Rd, F2, compound K, and aglycon by intestinal microflora [4-6]. Therefore , converting the major ginsenosides, which PLX4032 supplier account for more than 80% of the total ginsenosides, to highly active minor ginsenosides has much significance for the pharmaceutical industry. Ginsenosides, the major active constituents of ginseng, have various biological and pharmacological actions, including anti-cancer results , anti-inflammatory activity , and neuro-protective effects . Ginsenosides Rd and F2 have a number of pharmaceutical features such as for example anti-tumor and anti-cancer results, treating atherosclerosis, neuro-protective effects [10-13], and so forth. The small ginsenosides could be PLX4032 supplier made by hydrolyzing sugars moieties from the main ginsenosides . To date, several solutions to produce natural ginsenosides such as for example heating system, acid treatment, and enzymatic strategies have been created. The enzymatic strategies are considered as the utmost promising strategy with benefits of fewer byproducts, excellent environmental safety, and better stereo-specificity . Specifically, the purified recombinant enzymes exhibit higher selectivity and effectiveness than those isolated and purified from cultured microorganisms . In this research, we record the cloning of a fresh gene encoding ginsenoside-hydrolyzing -glucosidase (BglF3) from and characterization of -glucosidase (BglF3). BglF3 belongs to glycoside hydrolase family members 3, and the recombinant enzyme hydrolyzed just the external glucose moiety at the C-20 placement of ginsenoside Rb1 and gypenoside XVII, which are PLX4032 supplier efficiently changed into ginsenosides Rd and F2, respectively. Components AND METHODS Chemical substances Ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1, Rg3(KACC 11414T, utilized as a resource for cloning of -glucosidase gene, was cultured on R2A agar (BD, Sparks, MD, United states) under an aerobic condition at 30. BL21 (DE3) and pGEX 4T-1 plasmid (GE Health care, Waukesha, WI, United states) for gene cloning and expression had been cultured in a LuriaCBertani (LB) moderate with ampicillin (100 mg/L). Cloning, expression, and purification of recombinant BglF3 Genomic DNA of KACC 11414T was extracted with a genomic DNA extraction package (Solgent, Daejeon, Korea). The gene, termed DNA polymerase (Solgent) using the next primers (with BamHI and XhoI restriction sites in boldface): (5-CGGGATCCAAAAACAAAATGATATACCTTTCTGC- 3) and (5-CCCCTCGAGTTATTTAATTGTGAAGTTAATTTCC- 3). The amplified fragment was digested with BamHI and XhoI and inserted to the pGEX 4T-1 vector to create a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-gene fusion. PLX4032 supplier BL21 (DE3), changed with recombinant pGEX-and BL21 (DE3) accompanied by the induction of 0.1 mM IPTG and incubated at 18 for 24 h. The GSTBglF3 fusion proteins was purified by GST-bind agarose resin and the GST tag was eliminated by Emcn thrombin at space temperature throughout a 12 h incubation period. The predictive molecular mass (81.8 KDa) of the BglF3 was dependant on SDS-PAGE (Fig. 1). Open in another window Fig. 1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis evaluation of purified BglF3. 1, uninduced crude extract; 2, induced crude extract; 3, glutathione S-transferase (GST)-BglF3 enzyme fraction after purification by GST-bind agarose resin; 4, cleavage of GSTBglF3 by thrombin. KDa, kilodalton; M, marker. Enzyme characterization BglF3 was energetic over a wide pH range (pH 4.0 to 9.0) in 37. The ideal pH was pH 6.0 in sodium phosphate buffer (Fig. 2A). The enzyme activity retained a lot more than 80% of its ideal activity from pH 5.0 to 8.0, while above pH 10.0 enzyme activity decreased upto 95% and at pH 4.0 the enzyme activity reduced to 30%. The -glucosidase from sp. 229 , sp. 229 , ideals of 0.910.02 and.