of in lithogenesis for the first time in Tunisia among sickle cell anemia (SCA) children patients. repeat at the nucleotide sequence in the promoter region, considered as the wild type. In fact, the addition of an extra (TA) at this sequence leads to a variant gene. In fact, The element is the binding site for transcription factor IID, which is one of the factors responsible for the initiation of transcription and the presence of this longer element in the promoter region of the gene for bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 resulting in reduced expression of bilirubin-UGT1 (30% of normal) and hence causing unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia . Studies of a possible association between polymorphisms of candidate genes related to the modulation of clinical complications of SCA have shown that sickle cell patients who carry the variation (TA)7 are favorable for gallstone formation [4C11]. Besides, other studies have shown the correlation of cholelithiasis and variant of promoter with chronic hemolytic diseases such as thalassemia minor, which represent a risk factor for cholelithiasis and the Gilbert mutation further increases this risk [12C16]. The prevalence of cholelithiasis observed in SCA children is about 30% reported for different ethnical groups (United States, Guadeloupe) [17, 18]. GS-1101 biological activity In this paper, we intend to study the impact of gene promoter on hyperbilirubinemia and on the occurrence of cholelithiasis for the first time among SCA Tunisian children. SCA is the second sickle cell hemoglobinopathy after Genotyping Genomic DNA was isolated from white blood cells of total blood using standard method (phenol/chloroform). sequences were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a couple of primers, namely, TAF: 5-TCGTCCTTCTTCCTCTCTGG-3 and TAR: 5-TCCTGCTCCTGCCAGAGGTT-3. Polymerase chain reaction was performed in 25?reaction volumes containing 100?ng of genomic DNA, 0.2?mmol/L of each dNTP, 50?mmol/L KCl, 15?mmol/L Tris-HCl PH Rabbit Polyclonal to OR10AG1 8.0, 2.5?mmol/L MgCl2, 0.5?U AmpliTaq polymerase (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA), and 10?pmol of each forward and reverse primers. The PCR cycling conditions included an initial denaturation of 10?min at 96C followed by 35 cycles of 96C for 30?s, annealing at 58C for 30?s, and extension at 72C for 1?min. The run was ended by a final extension at 72C for 7?min. PCR products were then purified and doubly sequenced (forward and reverse) by ABI PRISM Big Dye Terminator on Ready Reaction Kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) and an ABI 310 DNA sequencer (PEApplied Biosystems, Foster City, USA). 2.3. Data Analysis The sample of SCA patients was divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of cholelithiasis. 76 patients with normal hemoglobin (AA) and presented cholelithiasis were enrolled in the analysis. We compared demographic and hematological and clinical data between the groups of patients. As for polymorphism genetic differences between the groups were evaluated. We defined two intervals of total bilirubin levels. The first includes total bilirubin value 35?values for the entire tests and Fisher’s exact test and chi-squared test were used as appropriate. GS-1101 biological activity 3. Results 3.1. Demographic, Hematological, and Biochemical Analysis The distribution of each continuous variable was performed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Our results GS-1101 biological activity show that there is no significant difference between the two groups of SCA patient according to the presence or the absence of cholelithiasis ( 0.05), whereas, the comparison of total conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin concentrations between the two groups of SS children patients shows a significant difference with 0.05. Our findings show a significant difference between SCA patients and patients GS-1101 biological activity with cholelithiasis considered as control group with 0.05 (Table 1). Table 1 Hematological, demographic, and clinical data of studied population. 0.05 is considered as significant. Polymorphism All samples were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (= 0.09) for polymorphism. Our results show the presence of seven genotypes, namely, (TA)5/(TA)6, (TA)6/(TA)6, (TA)6/(TA)7, (TA)7/(TA)7, (TA)5/(TA)7, (TA)7/(TA)8, and (TA)8/(TA)8. The distribution of genotypes between children with gallstones and who are without gallstones and the control group are shown in Table 2. The comparison of.