We have evidence that methamphetamine (METH)-induced neuronal death is morphologically necrotic,

We have evidence that methamphetamine (METH)-induced neuronal death is morphologically necrotic, not apoptotic, as is currently believed, and that electrographic seizures may be responsible. acidophilic neurons in 4 of the 7 brain regions, but those with RESDs had significantly more in 6 of the 7 brain regions. Maximum rectal temperatures were comparable in mice with and without RESDs, so that cannot explain the difference between the two groups with respect to METH-induced neuronal death. Our data show that METH-induced neuronal death is lorcaserin HCl kinase activity assay morphologically necrotic, that EEGs must be recorded to detect electrographic seizure activity in rodents without behavioral evidence of seizures, and that RESDs may be responsible for METH-induced neuronal death. at 4 C overnight, after which they were removed and placed in the same perfusate. Brains were placed in a Kopf Brain Blocker and cut in the coronal plane so that the dorsal hippocampus (1.94 Rabbit Polyclonal to RPL19 mm posterior to bregma) and ventral hippocampus (3.16 mm posterior to bregma) were included in the brain blocks (Paxinos and Watson, 1998). Brain slices were dehydrated, embedded in paraffin, cut into 6-m-thick coronal sections, rehydrated, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The apoptotic neurons in Fig. 3D and E are unpublished photomicrographs from the retrosplenial cortex of a postnatal day 8 (P8) rat pup, stained with H&E and with TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT], biotinylated dUTP nick-end labeling) and methyl green counterstain, respectively. TUNEL labels double-stranded DNA fragments (Gavrielli et al., 1992). Our protocol of obtaining lorcaserin HCl kinase activity assay neonatal cortical tissue for staining of apoptotic neurons with H & E and TUNEL and the TUNEL staining procedure itself has previously been published (Fujikawa et al., 2000). 2.4. Semi-quantitative assessment of normal and acidophilic neurons The semi-quantitative assessment of normal and acidophilic (necrotic) neurons in four hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA2, CA3 and hilus) and in amgydala, piriform cortex and entorhinal cortex) was performed as we have described previously for rats (Fujikawa, 1995, 1996, 1994, 2002, 1999, 2000, 2007, 2010; Zhao et al., 2010). We estimated the numbers of acidophilic neurons on a 0C3 grading scale, 0 = none, 0.5 = slight ( 10%), 1.0 = mild (10C25%), 1.5 = mild-to-moderate (26C45%), 2.0 = moderate (46C54%), 2.5 = moderate-to-severe (55C75%), and 3.0 = severe ( 75%), as previously published (Fujikawa, 1995, 1996, 1994, 2002, 1999, 2000, 2007, 2010; Zhao et al., 2010). 2.5. Statistical analysis The damage score data conformed to a Poisson distribution rather than a normal curve, so in consultation with our longtime statistical consultant, Dr. Jeffrey Gornbein (see Acknowledgments), we performed a two-factor (group and brain region) analysis of deviance, with = 0.05, as we did in a recently published article (Fujikawa et al., 2010). The maximal rectal temperature lorcaserin HCl kinase activity assay ( 0.001 compared to control regions, +++ 0.001, + 0.05 compared to brain regions of mice without SREDs, and ### 0.001 compared to control regions. 3.5. Maximal rectal temperatures did not differ between methamphetamine-treated mice with and without RESDs The maximal rectal temperature ( 0.01, ** 0.01 compared to the control group. 4. Discussion In this study we found lorcaserin HCl kinase activity assay that morphologically necrotic neurons are found in seven brain regions 24 h following METH administration in mice with RESDs but not in mice without RESDs, and that there is no factor in optimum rectal temps in both groups. Earlier METH studies show Fluoro-Jade-positive neurons in hippocampus, hippocampal remnants (Schmued and Bowyer, 1997), amygdala and hippocampus (Bowyer and Ali, 2006) and parietal cortex in rats (Eisch et al., 1998). This technique cannot supply the provided information regarding the nucleus how the H&E stain provides, but the format from the shrunken neurons conforms from what we have found in acidophilic neurons, which are by ultrastructural examination necrotic (Fujikawa et al., 2002, 1999, 2000). A previous study claimed that apoptotic neurons were induced by METH,.

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