Supplementary MaterialsDocument S1. self-renewal, and homeostatic function requires their intact oxygen-sensing capacity. deletion induces normoxic expression of HIF target genes (Cramer et?al., 2003, Peyssonnaux et?al., SKI-606 inhibitor database 2005). Here, we deleted in the CD11c+ compartment (CD11cdeletion induced the expression of HIF target genes and altered the AM metabolic profile. VHL-deficient AMs showed an immature-like phenotype and a decreased self-renewal capacity that were cell intrinsic, as demonstrated using mixed bone marrow (BM) chimeras. In addition, VHL contributed to AM-mediated surfactant clearance in a model of alveolar proteinosis. Our results therefore support the notion that intact oxygen-sensing capacity is required for AM terminal differentiation, self-renewal, and function. Results and Discussion Downregulation of Hypoxia and Glycolysis during Postnatal AM Maturation To explore whether oxygen sensing by AMs could be linked to their maturation, we analyzed a publicly available microarray data (Schneider et?al., 2014) containing the transcriptional profile of AMs from pups at postnatal days 2 and 11 and from adult mice that CASP9 were 8C12?weeks old. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed on the gene expression profiles using the hallmark collection of the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB). Results showed significant enrichment of both hypoxia and glycolysis gene sets in immature AMs from 2-day-old pups compared with mature AMs from adults (Shape?1A). Furthermore, the manifestation of primary genes from both of these enriched hallmark gene models was steadily downregulated during AM maturation (Shape?1B), suggesting postnatal version of AMs to air. Primary genes from both gene models included well-known HIF focuses on such as for example Slc2a1, Hk2, Pdk1, and Slc2a3 (Numbers 1B and 1C [genes designated in reddish colored]). Evaluation of other traditional HIF focus on genes generally exposed the same manifestation dynamics (Numbers 1C and 1D). The mean manifestation of most HIF focus on genes was therefore considerably higher in immature AMs (day time 2) than in adult AMs from adult mice, whereas no significant adjustments were discovered between postnatal day time 11 and adulthood (Shape?1E), correlating with the finish of AM terminal differentiation in approximately postnatal day time 7 (Guilliams et?al., 2013). These outcomes claim that downregulation of HIF activity in AMs upon contact with high oxygen pressure after birth could be very important to AM terminal differentiation, concurring using the HIF-1-3rd party part of mTOR in AM advancement SKI-606 inhibitor database after birth (Sinclair et?al., 2017). Open in a separate window Figure?1 Downregulation of Hypoxia and Glycolysis during Postnatal AM Maturation (A) Enrichment plots from GSEA of postnatal day 2 (D2) compared with adult (AD) AMs using the hallmark gene set collection from the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB). (B) mRNA expression (normalized log2, robust multiarray average SKI-606 inhibitor database [RMA] counts) of core genes from hypoxia and glycolysis gene sets in lung AMs from postnatal day 2 (D2), D11, and adult mice. Red and blue represent overexpressed and underexpressed genes, respectively. (C) Table depicting some classic HIF target genes. Genes marked in red are present in Figure?1B. (D) mRNA expression (as seen in Figure?1B) of HIF target genes not included in the hallmark gene sets indicated in Figure?1B (marked in black); color intensity defined as seen in Figure?1B. (E) Expression of HIF target genes from Figure?1C in D2 and D11 AMs. Values represented as the ratio of the mean expression in AMs from D2 or D11 mice into the mean expression in AMs from adult mice. ns, not significant; ??p? 0.01 by column statistics analysis, hypothetical value?= 1. Lack of VHL Results in AM-Immature Phenotype and Modified Metabolic Profile To investigate the biological significance of oxygen-sensing modulation in AMs after birth, we generated a genetic system SKI-606 inhibitor database to prevent HIF degradation in response to high postnatal oxygen pressures by deleting in SKI-606 inhibitor database the CD11c lineage (CD11c-Cre.