Background Cannabis sativa offers been cultivated throughout human history as a

Background Cannabis sativa offers been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. in hemp. Resequencing the hemp cultivars ‘Finola’ and ‘USO-31’ showed little difference in gene copy numbers of cannabinoid pathway enzymes. However, single nucleotide variant analysis uncovered a relatively high level of variation among four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. Conclusions The availability of the Cannabis sativa genome enables the study 10537-47-0 manufacture of a multifunctional plant that occupies a unique role in human culture. Its availability will aid the development of therapeutic marijuana strains with tailored cannabinoid profiles and provide a basis for the breeding of hemp with improved agronomic characteristics. Keywords: Cannabaceae, cannabis, marijuana, hemp, genome, transcriptome, cannabinoid Background One of the earliest domesticated plant species, Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana, hemp; Cannabaceae) has been used for millennia as a source of fibre, oil- and protein-rich achenes 10537-47-0 manufacture (“seeds”) and for its medicinal and psychoactive properties. From its site of domestication in Central Asia, the cultivation of cannabis spread in ancient times throughout Asia and Europe and is now one of the most widely distributed cultivated plants [1]. Hemp fibre was used for textile production in China more than 6000 years BP (before present) [2]. Archaeological evidence for the medicinal or shamanistic use of cannabis has been found in a 2700-year BSP-II old tomb in north-western China and a Judean tomb from 1700 years BP [3,4]. Currently cannabis and its derivatives such as hashish are the most widely consumed illicit drugs in the world [5]. Its use is also increasingly recognized in the treatment of a range of diseases such as multiple sclerosis and conditions with chronic pain [6,7]. In addition, hemp forms 10537-47-0 manufacture of cannabis are grown as an agricultural crop in many countries. Cannabis is an erect annual herb with a dioecious breeding system, although monoecious plants exist. Wild and cultivated forms of cannabis are morphologically variable, resulting in confusion and controversy over the taxonomic organization of the genus (see [8] for review). Some authors have proposed a monotypic genus, C. sativa, while others have argued that Cannabis is composed of two species, Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica, and some have included a third species, Cannabis ruderalis, in the genus. In light of the taxonomic uncertainty, we use C. sativa to describe the plants analyzed in this study. The unique pharmacological properties of cannabis are due to the presence of cannabinoids, a group of more than 100 natural products that mainly accumulate in female flowers (“buds”) [9,10]. 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the principle psychoactive cannabinoid and the compound responsible for the analgesic, 10537-47-0 manufacture antiemetic and appetite-stimulating effects of cannabis [11,12]. Non-psychoactive cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC) and 9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), which possess diverse pharmacological activities, are also present in some varieties or strains [13-15]. Cannabinoids are synthesized as carboxylic acids and upon heating or smoking decarboxylate to their neutral forms; for example, 9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is converted to THC. Although cannabinoid biosynthesis is not understood on the hereditary or biochemical level, several crucial enzymes have already been determined including an applicant polyketide synthase and both oxidocyclases, THCA synthase (THCAS) and cannabidiolic acidity (CBDA) synthase, which type the main cannabinoid acids [16-18]. Cannabinoid content material and composition is certainly adjustable among cannabis plant life highly. People that have a high-THCA/low-CBDA chemotype are termed weed, whereas people that have a low-THCA/high-CBDA chemotype are termed hemp. You can find large distinctions in the minimal cannabinoid constituents within these simple chemotypes. Mating of cannabis for make use of being a medication and medication, aswell as improved cultivation procedures, has resulted in increased potency before several years with median degrees of THC in dried out female bouquets of ca. 11% by dried out weight; levels in a few plants go beyond 23% [10,19]. This mating effort, a covert activity by weed growers generally, provides created a huge selection of strains that differ in terpenoid and cannabinoid structure, aswell as appearance and growth characteristics. Patients statement medical marijuana strains differ in their therapeutic effects, although evidence for this is usually anecdotal. Cannabis has a diploid genome (2n = 20) with a karyotype composed of nine autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes (X and Y). Female plants are homogametic (XX) and males heterogametic (XY) with sex determination controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system [20]. The estimated size of the haploid genome is usually 818 Mb for female plants and 843 Mb for male plants, owing.