The rapid population growth in developing countries has led to strong pressure on capture fisheries

The rapid population growth in developing countries has led to strong pressure on capture fisheries. for mycotoxigenic fungi compared to additional ingredients. The outcomes of mycotoxin contamination in fish feeds are not different from additional animal species intended for human being consumption, and they are associated with production deficits straight, reduced putting on weight and give food to transformation especially, impaired disease fighting capability and reproductive functionality, and increased seafood mortality. Seafood may also carry mycotoxin residues along the food chain, thus compromising human health. Hence, it is important to ensure the control of mycotoxin contamination in fish feeds, especially during the production and storage. 1. Introduction Fish production in 2012 surpassed 158 million metric lots, whilst the value of international fish trade added up to USD 129 billion [1]. Aquaculture is the Iopamidol world’s fastest growing food production sector for more than four decades, whereas an increasingly large share of fish entering the global markets is derived from aquaculture [2]. Aquaculture production in Africa significantly improved from 646,182 to 1 1,710,910 million metric lots; as a matter of fact, fish and shrimp production in Africa has already grown by approximately 400% [3]. This quick increase has been due to Rabbit polyclonal to Src.This gene is highly similar to the v-src gene of Rous sarcoma virus.This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth.The protein encoded by this gene is a tyrosine-protein kinase whose activity can be inhibited by phosphorylation by c-SRC kinase.Mutations in this gene could be involved in the malignant progression of colon cancer.Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. a decrease in fish production from capture systems and improved awareness of the nutritional importance of fish [4]. With the quick growth in aquaculture, demand for fish feeds is definitely expected to continue increasing proportionately [5]. Fish feed is an essential part of the aquaculture market and comprises 40C50% of the total production cost in rigorous tradition systems [6]. It also has an important contribution to the production of fish feed since it tends to affect the quality of eggs [7]. A majority of fish farmers in developing countries use locally made fish feeds or commercially imported feeds for Nile tilapia (and African catfish Iopamidol (are the three most important genera of toxigenic fungi in the tropics [13]. The presence of toxigenic fungi, some generating mycotoxin in farmed fish has increased in recent years owing to the increasing use of flower materials as parts for fish feeding [5]. Contamination of fish feeds by mycotoxins and the possible transfer of these toxins into farmed fish and fish-derived products for human consumption remain a serious food safety concern [14]. Around 300C400 mycotoxin types are known to date [15], but the most important in tropical countries are aflatoxins (AFs) (AFB1, B2, G1, and G2) and fumonisins (FBs) (FB1, FB2, and FB3) [16]. In addition to AFs and FBs, ochratoxin A (OTA) and trichothecenes (THs) are also important [17]. Mycotoxin contamination has been implicated with a reduction in fish productivity, anemia, hemorrhaging, liver impairment, weight loss, increased vulnerability to secondary infectious diseases, reduced reproductive capacity, and even mortality [18C21], resulting in serious economic losses [22, 23]. Since aquaculture is a growing sector in a majority of the developing countries, especially in Africa, the aim of this review is to give Iopamidol an overview of fungal and mycotoxin contamination of fish feed, feed ingredients, and their effects on fish health. 2. Feed Consumption in Farmed Fish Fish feed is the major cost item in intensive farming systems, and they represent 50 to 70 percent of fish farmers’ production costs [24]. Requirements for intensive aquaculture are high-quality animal protein, lipid, and other essential nutrients [25]. In order to reduce the feed cost, several efforts have been made to replace the expensive feed ingredients. Incorporating vegetable oil, increasing levels of plant ingredients, and reduction in the level of costly fish meal are appropriate husbandry practices that have been adopted to reduce maintenance costs (particularly feed costs). Zhao et al. [26] reported that fish meal can be completely replaced.