Ethanol produced from renewable resources (i

Ethanol produced from renewable resources (i. exhaustible. Thus, the threat of energy shortage is becoming more serious considering the ever-increasing energy consumption of mankind. This and other (especially environmental) factors lead toward renewable and more environmentally friendly alternative energy sources, especially in mobile transportation. There are a number of potentially available biofuels. Among them, bioethanol produced by biomass fermentation seems to be the most attractive substitute of fossil gasolines.1 In 1970, Brazil introduced the first large bioethanol program called ProAlcool with a vision to replace part of the gasoline consumption by bioethanol. This program contributed to a more active research on bioethanol and to a more rigorous effort to reduce the production costs of bioethanol.2 Currently, Cyclosporin C the United States is the biggest producer of bioethanol (from corn) and is followed by Brazil (from sugarcane). Their combined bioethanol production covers about 80% of the worldwide production.3 The European Union accounts for about 3% of the worldwide bioethanol production, and the main sources are wheat and sugar beet.1 The majority of bioethanol is used in Brazil. About 20% of cars in Brazil use real bioethanol (E100) and the rest burn E22 or E85 fuels.4 In the European Union, the bioethanol content in conventional fuels is limited by legislation that units the oxygen content to 2.7 wt % and the bioethanol content to 5 vol %; an increase in the bioethanol content to 10 vol % is PITPNM1 being considered.5,6 In the Czech Republic, an obligatory blending of conventional gasolines with 4.1 vol % of ethanol has been set by legislation since June 2010.7 Fuels with an ethanol content of up to 5 vol % have to meet the requirements of the ?SN EN 228 standard and fuels with higher ethanol contents (E85) have to meet the requirements of the ?SN P CEN/TS 15293 standard. Ethanol intended to be used as a gasoline component must be real, without haze, anhydrous (complete), and denatured. The ethanol content before Cyclosporin C and after the denaturation must be higher than 99.7 and 95.6 vol %, respectively. The blending of gasolines with bioethanol is related to several different problems that are caused by the different chemical nature of bioethanol and hydrocarbon-based gasolines. Besides various other problems, materials compatibility of nonmetallic or metallic structure components with ethanol can be quite difficult, for fuels with higher ethanol items especially. Conversely, fuels filled with significantly less than 10 vol?% of ethanol ought never to display such complications.8 The problematic materials compatibility could be due to the corrosion aggressiveness from the ethanolCgasoline mixes (EGBs), which relates to the bigger polarity of ethanol and its own Cyclosporin C capability to raise the solubility of water in the EGBs. The corrosion aggressiveness from the EGBs could be marketed by chlorides that may be dissolved in drinking water because of drinking water contamination due to the failing to adhere to good transport and storage circumstances; alternatively, ethanol itself could be also a way to obtain undesirable chlorides. Also, the solubility of air in EGBs can possess a negative effect on the corrosion aggressiveness from the EGBs as air could be a area of the corrosion reactions being a depolarizer. The dissolved air can help oxidize some unsaturated fuel substances to peroxides and acidic chemicals that are corrosion realtors for a few metallic components.8?10 The corrosion ramifications of EGBs are exhibited over the metallic element of fuel mostly.