Colon cancer accounts for a large proportion of all the cancer-associated morbidities worldwide. tumor stage and location, and genetic status of mismatch repair (MMR), Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), B-Raf proto-oncogene lorcaserin HCl novel inhibtior serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) and tumor protein p53 (TP53). In the present study, the mRNA expression levels of TAZ, AXL and CTGF were evaluated, and the TAZ-AXL-CTGF signature was correlated with the available pathological parameters and survival data. Overexpression of TAZ, AXL and CTGF was observed to be associated with severe pathological stage, deficiency in MMR, colon lorcaserin HCl novel inhibtior cancer subtype C4 and mutations in the BRAF gene. In addition, overexpression of lorcaserin HCl novel inhibtior TAZ-AXL-CTGF was associated with short overall survival in patients with mutations in the TP53 gene, colon cancer subtype C6, proficient MMR and wild-type status of the KRAS and BRAF genes. Furthermore, the prognostic value of TAZ-AXL-CTGF overexpression was observed to be independent of all the clinicopathological parameters and mutational statuses analyzed. The results of the present study confirm the previously reported findings, and suggest that the TAZ-AXL-CTGF mRNA signature is a potential prognostic indicator in colon cancer. (5). Materials and methods Microarray gene expression data were retrieved from the data matrixes deposited in the GEO database by Marisa (7). R scripting was used to extract the expression values from the probe sets for TAZ, AXL and CTGF, and the clinical data from the data matrixes available at GEO, as previously described (5). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software, version 19.0 (IBM SPSS, Armonk, NY, USA). The association between the expression levels of TAZ, AXL and CTGF were analyzed by Spearman’s rank test. The mRNA expression levels of these genes were classified as high or low, using the value of the median expression level as the cut-off point. Patients were divided into three groups, based on the expression levels of TAZ, AXL and CTGF, as follows: i) The TAZ-AXL-CTGF-low group consisted of patients who exhibited low expression levels (below the median value) of these three genes; ii) the TAZ-AXL-CTGF-high group consisted of patients who displayed high expression levels (above the lorcaserin HCl novel inhibtior median value) of these three genes; and iii) the TAZ-AXL-CTGF-intermediate group consisted of patients who presented other expression patterns of the above three genes. The survival time of patients stratified by this grouping method were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed including all the available clinicopathological parameters, genetic statuses and mRNA expression levels of TAZ, AXL and CTGF, using a forward conditional stepwise regression method with an entry criteria of P 0.05, which was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. The clinicopathological Rabbit polyclonal to CUL5 data of the patients are detailed in Table I. The sample size was different for each analysis due to variations in the data available for each patient. Table I. Clinicopathological features of the patients in the dataset GSE40967. (5), the expression levels of TAZ-AXL-CTGF were positively correlated with tumor stage (2 test, P=0.017, n=562; Fig. 2A). High expression levels of TAZ-AXL-CTGF were also associated with deficiency in MMR (2 test, P 0.001, n=515; Fig. 2B), colon cancer subtype C4 (2 test, P 0.001, n=562; Fig. 2C), and mutant BRAF status (2 test, P=0.004, n=508; Fig. 2D). The TAZ-AXL-CTGF-high and -low groups were further compared, and differential expression of the MMR-signature-associated genes was identified (8). Thus, the expression levels of genes that are usually overexpressed in MMR-proficient colon cancer, including reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1, quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2, arylsulfatase E, -glutamyl hydrolase, glutathione peroxidase 2, serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 1, transcription factor 7, inhibitor of DNA binding 1, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 11A, indian hedgehog, guanylate cyclase 2C, protein kinase adenosine monophosphate-activated 1, Achaete-Scute complex homolog 2, pleiomorphic adenoma gene-like 2, transcription factor-like 5, kinesin family member 3B, villin 1, cadherin, EGF laminin A seven-pass G-type receptor 3, gap junction protein 1, solute carrier family 5 (sodium/glucose cotransporter) member 1, dipeptidase 1, transmembrane 9 superfamily protein member 4 and family with sequence similarity 3 member A, were reduced in the TAZ-AXL-CTGF-high group, compared with the TAZ-AXL-CTGF-low group. By contrast, genes that are normally overexpressed in MMR-deficient colon cancer, including dual specificity phosphatase 4, cysteine-rich protein 1, major histocompatibility complex class I polypeptide-related sequence B, granzyme A, matrix metalloproteinase-12, secreted phosphoprotein 1, v-set lorcaserin HCl novel inhibtior and immunoglobulin domain containing 4, uridine phosphorylase 1 and tribbles pseudokinase 2, were significantly overexpressed in the TAZ-AXL-CTGF-high group, compared with the TAZ-AXL-CTGF-low group. These results indicate that the aforementioned genes may be involved in the association between the TAZ-AXL-CTGF signature and the MMR status displayed by patients with colon cancer.